A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than a fuel produced by the very slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Biofuels can be produced from plants (i.e. energy crops), or from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes (if the waste has a biological origin such as woody biomass). Reference: Wikipedia
Renewable hydrocarbon biofuels (aka “green” hydrocarbons, biohydrocarbons, drop-in biofuels, and sustainable or advanced hydrocarbon biofuels) are fuels produced from biomass through a variety of biological, thermal, and chemical processes. These products are similar to petroleum gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel in chemical makeup and are therefore considered infrastructure-compatible fuels. It is expected that these fuels can be used in vehicles without requiring engine modifications and can use existing petroleum fuel pipelines and retail distribution systems. Reference – Afdc.energy.gov
Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) is made by blending conventional kerosene (fossil-based) with renewable hydrocarbon. SAF is certified as “Jet-A1” fuel and can be used without any technical modifications to aircraft. Other terms such as renewable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel, alternative fuel, biojet fuel, and sustainable alternative fuel have similar intended meaning as SAF. Reference: Aviationbenefits.org
An alternative fuel that is completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A perfect drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or the vehicle or equipment engine fuel systems, and can be used “as is” in vehicles and engines that currently operate on that particular fuel. Some alternative fuels may become “drop-in” only after blending with conventional fuel to a certain prescribed proportion. Reference: Researchgate.net
Biojet fuel is made from vegetable oils, sugars, animal fats, and biomass (including woody biomass) and can be used in existing aviation jet engines without modification. Reference: Research Gate
Sustainable alternative jet fuels (SAJF) is in the family of drop-in fuels that are intended to lower the net life-cycle carbon emissions of commercial aviation.
Jet Fuels. SAJF needs the specifications for jet fuel, either on their own or when blended with conventional jet fuel. As such, SAJF (blended as necessary) are “drop-in” replacements for conventional jet fuel.
Alternative. SAJF are alternative in that they are produced primarily from nonpetroleum sources of hydrocarbons using a potentially broad range of biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.
Sustainable. Alternate fuels need to be sustainable both in terms of their ability to reduce net life-cycle carbon emissions relative to conventional jet fuel and in terms of environmental, societal, and economic factors.
Woody biomass is organic matter from trees and plants. Trees and plant debris is used as an energy source. Energy comes from the sun through a process called photosynthesis and is released when woody biomass is burned or decomposes. Woody biomass is the by-product of management, restoration, and hazardous fuel reduction treatments, as well as the product of natural disasters, including trees and woody plants (limbs, tops, needles, leaves, and other woody parts, grown in a forest, woodland, or rangeland environment). Reference: Forest and Rangelands (See process of converting woody biomass to sustainable aviation fuel.)
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